A condition in which in the intestine the amount of pathogenic microflora prevails over the number of beneficial bacteria is called dysbacteriosis. This leads to the fact that pathogens, whose activities were previously restrained by “good” microbes, begin to have a destructive effect. In addition, the beneficial microflora helps to digest food, so its reduction leads to malfunction of the gastrointestinal tract. This is manifested by constipation, diarrhea, nausea, flatulence. Proper nutrition with dysbacteriosis helps to restore the prevalence of beneficial bacteria over pathogenic ones.
Correction of dysbiosis using nutrition
Diet for dysbacteriosis is a therapeutic diet, the main task of which is to normalize the intestinal microflora. Such goals can be achieved through the consumption of food rich in pectins, useful live microorganisms (probiotics). Prebiotics can help improve the state of the microflora - particles that are not digested and absorbed by the upper GI tract, but are food for beneficial bacteria, which contributes to their development. As a result, a diet with dysbacteriosis in adults helps to cope with the following tasks:
- fill the body's need for nutrients
- restore impaired intestinal motor function,
- normalize metabolism
- normalize the balance between pathogenic and positive bacteria.
Principles of diet for dysbacteriosis
The effectiveness of a therapeutic diet depends not only on the diet, but also on the diet. To succeed in the treatment of dysbiosis in adults, you must adhere to the following rules:
- eat in small portions, taking a break between meals in 2-3 hours,
- eat at a fixed time
- the diet should be as balanced and complete as possible, contain vitamins and minerals,
- Avoid very cold or hot foods; food should be at room temperature or warmed up to a maximum of 50 ° C.
- food should be chewed thoroughly, you should refuse to eat dry food to avoid injury to the mucous membrane,
- ration should include foods containing prebiotics (wheat bran, bananas, chicory root, artichoke),
- include probiotics (lactobacilli, bifidobacteria), which are found in large quantities in fermented milk products,
- food should not irritate or injure the gastric mucosa,
- exclude products from the menu that cause fermentation and rotting,
- taboo - dishes that negatively affect intestinal peristalsis (wavy contractions of the organ during which food moves),
- exclude from the menu smoked, pepper, salty, fried, fatty, pickled dishes, as well as containing a lot of onions and garlic.
Treatment of dysbacteriosis in adults implies a large fluid intake. This prevents dehydration of the body with diarrhea, helps to dilute feces with constipation. It is better to give preference to non-carbonated mineral water, which stimulates the release of toxins from the intestine, which will be excreted by putrefactive bacteria. Diet during the treatment of dysbacteriosis provides for a complete rejection of any alcoholic beverages.
Why is the balance of bacteria in the intestine disturbed?
Dysbacteriosis is always a consequence of such diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, as:
• gastritis with low acidity,
• peptic ulcer and 12 duodenal ulcer,
• states associated with surgery on the organs of the gastrointestinal tract,
• all types of acute intestinal infections associated with diarrhea and vomiting.
Predisposing factors for the development of intestinal dysbiosis in adults include the following:
• treatment with antibacterial drugs,
• hormonal changes on the background of menopause, pregnancy,
• taking oral contraceptives,
• severe infections that weaken the immune system,
• all types of immunopathies, including HIV infection.
Intestinal dysbacteriosis in a child can be triggered by the rejection of breastfeeding.
Proper nutrition for dysbacteriosis
The composition of the intestinal microflora depends on what products a person consumes. Properly chosen food contributes to the resumption of growth of beneficial microorganisms.
This diet can be used if necessary to be treated with antibiotics, stress and overweight.
The diet to restore the intestinal microflora does not imply any exotic and hard-to-reach products. Its advantages are the following:
• complete balance of the diet,
• optimum nutritional value,
• lack of hunger,
• improving overall well-being,
• relief of symptoms of dysbacteriosis: intestinal colic, abdominal distention, distention, etc.
All dishes must be freshly prepared, aggressive processing of food, for example, deep-frying, is not allowed.
Steaming, roasting in the oven, boiling are those ways that allow you to achieve maximum preservation of vitamins, nutrients and contribute to the normalization of digestion processes. Salt should be at a minimum. Meal is frequent, up to 6 times a day, in small portions. It is better to eat at the same time: it will allow you to develop a reflex to the synthesis of enzymes and digestive juices, which help to digest food.
Meals should not be too hot or too cold: both are equally harmful to irritated gastrointestinal tract.
If putrefaction predominates in the intestine, limit protein and fatty foods, and preference is given to vegetable dishes and cereals.
Flatulence can be defeated if you give up milk, carbohydrates (sweets and pastries) and raw vegetables.
A few general recommendations on diet for intestinal dysbiosis: what is possible and what is not
1. Do not eat large amounts of sugar and honey.
2. Vegetables with meat or fish bake better without oil, if desired, you can add 2 tablespoons of olive or other vegetable oil.
3. Butter can be used no more than 15 grams at a time.
4. Acidic sour berries are allowed.
5. Duration of the diet - 2-3 weeks. After the normalization of the intestinal flora and the relief of the phenomena of dysbacteriosis, the products should be introduced into the diet gradually, in small quantities. Pay attention to the bowel reaction and general well-being.
6. To increase the effectiveness of treatment, you can take probiotics and prebiotics (eubiotics), which either contain beneficial bacteria or contribute to their development. The natural eubiotics include all lactic acid products.
Products that should be discarded
Often the cause of dysbiosis is a yeast from the genus Candida Albicans. His favorite breeding products are yeast, milk and sugar. Of course, the best option is to know what microorganisms specifically caused dysbacteriosis, but for this you need to pass the biomaterial for flora.
When intestinal dysbiosis, these products are banned:
• hot pepper, mustard, garlic,
• all types of smoked meats,
• canned marinades with vinegar,
• raw vegetables,
• any semi-finished products,
• store sausages and sausages,
• sour fruits,
• millet, brown rice,
• sweet soft pastries,
• yeast-containing confectionery with an excess of sugar,
• store juices,
• alcohol in any kind, including beer,
• some seafood,
• sauerkraut, turnip, rutabaga, sorrel,
• fried, hard-boiled, raw eggs
• lamb, goose,
• cooking and animal fat,
• strong tea and coffee, kvass,
• whole milk and cream.
General list of permitted products for dysbacteriosis:
• white rice, pearl barley, buckwheat, lentils, pasta from durum wheat in limited quantities, better in soups
• lean types of meat, fish (pike perch, pike, carp, perch, hake, cod),
• birds: chicken and turkey, remove skin before cooking.
• scrambled eggs for a couple, but not more than 2 eggs per week,
• greens: parsley and dill,
• pumpkin, zucchini, carrots, beets, potatoes,
• fermented milk products: cottage cheese, low fat yogurt, ryazhenka,
• honey and sugar
• decoctions of useful herbs, wild rose,
• savory stewed fruit,
• non-carbonated drinking water,
• berries: raspberry, strawberry, lingonberry,
• butter, ghee, vegetable, margarine is less preferable.
Herbal medicine - treatment with herbs and plants
For intestinal dysbiosis, St. John's wort, calamus, marshmallow, calendula, and chamomile are used. The broth is prepared in a water bath, at the rate of 1 tablespoon per 200 ml of water, boil for 5-7 minutes, and another 200 ml of water is added. You can add honey to taste.
Approximate weekly general menu for dysbacteriosis
Portions should be small. The volume of liquid is 150 - 200 ml, the first dish is 200 - 250 g, the second is 200 g.
Bread from flour of the first and second grade, a rough grinding, in a small amount, it is more preferable slightly leeward.
Immediately drink food is not worth it, as the gastric juice is neutralized and fermentation processes are provoked.
Breakfast: rice porridge on water with butter and steam beef patty, rosehip tea.
2 breakfast: Omelette from one egg, black bread.
Dinner: cod soup with potatoes, baked vegetables, compote.
Afternoon tea: a glass of kefir.
Dinner: baked pumpkin with ground beef and parsley, bread, green tea.
For the night: rosehip decoction, marshmallows.
Breakfast: buckwheat porridge with meatballs from lean pork, compote.
2 breakfast: Kefir.
Dinner: rice soup with meatballs and dill, potato casserole with vegetables, bread, compote.
Dinner: baked fish with vegetables, bread, weak tea, marshmallows.
For the night: Ryazhenka and dry cracker.
Breakfast: cottage cheese with low-fat sour cream, scrambled eggs, weak tea.
2 breakfast: yogurt
Dinner: chicken soup with vegetables and parsley, bread, rice with meatballs, compote.
Dinner: baked chicken breast with zucchini, weak tea
For the night: boiled beetroot salad with vegetable oil.
Breakfast: buckwheat porridge and chicken breast goulash with carrots, tea.
2 breakfast: cottage cheese with sour cream
Dinner: soup - pike perch soup, baked vegetables, bread, dried fruit compote.
Afternoon tea: sandwich with cheese and butter, tea.
Dinner: potatoes with steam fish cakes, dogrose broth.
For the night: yogurt or cowberry kissel.
Breakfast: cottage cheese with sour cream, potatoes with a chop, pumpkin juice.
2 breakfast: yogurt.
Dinner: soup with beef, potatoes, baked with vegetables and pieces of meat, beet salad with carrots, bread, stewed fruit.
Afternoon tea: sandwich with cheese and butter, tea, marshmallows.
Dinner: cod baked in the oven, a salad of boiled beets, carrots, potatoes, green peas with vegetable oil.
For the night: rosehip decoction.
Breakfast: stewed vegetables casserole with minced meat and cheese. Kefir.
2 breakfast: carrot juice and cracker.
Dinner: borsch with beef, vegetable puree, bread, pumpkin juice.
Afternoon tea: cheese sandwich and tea.
Dinner: rice cakes, boiled beet salad, green tea.
For the night: compote with raspberries.
Breakfast: chicken breast with buckwheat, berry kissel.
2 breakfast: kefir, ryazhenka or yogurt.
Dinner: soup with meatballs, baked pumpkin with carrots and minced meat, compote.
Afternoon tea: cheese sandwich and tea.
Dinner: boiled potatoes with pike perch, vegetable salad from boiled beets, carrots, green peas, decoction of healthy herbs.
For the night: carrot juice.
Diet for intestinal dysbiosis in adults with constipation
Normalizes intestinal motility, fiber. It is rich in vegetables and fruits, so the pumpkin, beets, cabbage, and fruits are not only stewed and baked, but also raw. Fiber under the action of digestive juices swells in the intestines and contributes to the proper formation of fecal masses. In addition, fiber stimulates the growth of beneficial bacteria.
Dietary restrictions are identical to the general list of products for dysbiosis.
It is shown to drink more fluids (including freshly squeezed juices), at least 2 liters per day.
Prunes, rhubarb compote, bran, applesauce contribute to increased peristaltic movements.
Diet for intestinal dysbiosis with diarrhea
The state is normalized, if for 2 - 3 days to give the intestines and stomach rest: you can drink compotes, decoctions, jelly, broths. Oak bark, Badan root, cherry fruit well normalize the chair, if you additionally prepare a decoction of these plants.
Sugar can not be added.
Next, go to the mashed food at room temperature.
Recommendations on food choices and nutrition principles, we cited above.
Diet for intestinal dysbiosis in children
Meals will depend on the age of the child. If the baby is breastfed, then the mother should go on a diet. Perhaps the doctor will prescribe a means to normalize the intestinal microflora, for example, bifiliz. The drug is allowed to receive from birth.
If the baby is on artificial feeding, the pediatrician will give recommendations on the replacement of milk formula with sour milk.
Older child diarrhea will pass, if you use the general diet given for intestinal dysbiosis.
General requirements and nuances of therapeutic diet
- It is important to remember that the diet should be selected by a specialist who will build on the specifics and symptoms of your disease. For example, dysbacteriosis after antibiotics differs from dysbacteriosis after excessive consumption of "heavy" alcoholic beverages, therefore, the treatment will have its differences. For example, if an ailment is accompanied by strong and prolonged constipation, then rich meat broths and soups can be prescribed to such a patient, but with dysbacteriosis with constant distention and pain such a menu is contraindicated.
- Take care of good nutrition. Despite the fact that with such a diet, as it seems, nothing is possible, in your daily diet you must necessarily contain all the substances necessary for the body. Food must necessarily contain fermented milk products and dietary fiber, which are a favorable environment for the development of beneficial intestinal bacteria. If everything is clear with dairy products, then with food questions may arise, but what exactly is meant? These are products of the carbohydrate nature, for example, fruits, vegetables or cereals, they should be eaten daily, the only limitation may be the specificity of your disease.
- From the daily menu should exclude all foods that can cause the processes of fermentation and rotting, causing constant swelling of the stomach. For example, these include wine, especially homemade, kvass, grapes, sauerkraut and cucumbers.
- Diet for dysbacteriosis must necessarily include a specific water regime: the liquid must be consumed in a glass 2 hours before or 2 hours after. With constipation, this method effectively dilutes the feces, especially if you drink water in the morning on an empty stomach.
- It is desirable that spicy, too salty, smoked and tart condiments, as well as all sorts of marinades, sauces, mayonnaise, garlic and alcohol should be excluded from the diet. Snacking and eating food without a meal are not allowed, and in case of acute forms of dysbacteriosis, it is better to exclude too cold and raw dishes, for example, salads from fresh vegetables, it is better to heat all the products and mechanically.
- When intestinal dysbiosis in children nutrition should be maximally aimed at reducing irritation of the mucous membrane. This means that all fried, fatty, smoked and pickled foods, as well as fast foods and various carbonated sugary drinks are banned.
What is possible, and what is still impossible to eat?
To somehow create your own menu and begin to follow it, you must specifically know what you can not eat, and what is still allowed and what you should pay attention to.
Most doctors are convinced that proper nutrition in such a disease should not contribute to the secretion of gastric juice, which means that all kinds of smoked meats and sandwiches with them, canned vegetables with acetica are banned. Also for patients will be destructive popular dishes using marinade, for example, kebabs, meat or fish.
It is necessary to avoid foods that irritate the intestinal mucosa, namely acidic fruits and berries, such as currants, cranberries, sorrel, garlic and onions, peaches, apricots, tangerines, raspberries, quince, and so on.
Also banned are various sausages, pastries, fatty fish and meat, peas and beans, canned food, as well as radish, mustard, and pepper.
You should not eat millet, it can also irritate the mucous membranes, the same applies to germinated grain and bran, the latter can be added to the diet over time if diarrhea stopped. But a rice soup and rice porridge would be very useful, but it is important to know that brown rice is excluded.
Meat and fish are also necessary with such a diet, however, they need to be steamed, and consumed in a ground form. The best option - steam cutlets with a limited number of spices and onions.
Sources of vitamins, as before, remain fruits and vegetables, however, it is better to subject them to heat treatment, and in non-acute forms of the disease they are allowed in the raw state.White fish and chicken broths are allowed, and you can add a limited amount of vegetables, rice and potatoes.
Useful will be natural black and green tea, as well as cocoa without sugar, fresh juices, but subject to a non-acute form of the disease. Also useful are puree, apple puree or vegetable soups, which are sources of naturally probiotics. It is better to eat food in small portions, but every 2-3 hours.
What should be the diet for intestinal dysbacteriosis?
In order to benefit from the comprehensive treatment, it is necessary to consult a doctor, not the last one and a request to choose the right diet. Remember that the causes of the disease will significantly affect the proposed diet.
Diet implies a total ban on: marinades, smoked meats, seasonings and spices, mushrooms, sour fruit, raw vegetables, sweets, products that provoke fermentation. If you have a tendency to constipation, add strong cholesterol broths to the list.
Your reliable friends during the treatment of intestinal dysbiosis will be: lean meat and fish, eggs, cereals, dairy products, boiled vegetables, bran bread and broth hips.
The main rules of the diet
A few basic rules will help to quickly deal with dysbiosis
To successfully treat the disease to a minimum, reduce sugar-containing foods in order to avoid fermentation.
Do not drink water in the process of eating, it dilutes the concentration of gastric juice, which will lead to poor digestion of food.
Do not drink tea (coffee) immediately after a meal.
Do not take alcohol, but if the situation does not allow it to make, choose strong drinks, such as vodka and whiskey.
Increase your protein intake.
Do not use when dysbacteriosis fresh bread. Let him be half-hearted.
Eat when you want, do not attach to time.
Sample menu in patients with a diagnosis of dysbiosis
Diet for intestinal dysbiosis should spare the digestive system. This is a physiologically complete diet with preservation of extractive and other stimulating the separation of gastric juice (but not irritating the gastric mucosa) substances. Meat with coarse connective tissue and plant fiber, used primarily in a ground form.
The composition of the diet: proteins - 90–100 g (animals - 60%), fats - 90–100 g (vegetable - 25%), carbohydrates - 400–420 g, vitamin C - 100 mg, other vitamins - in an increased amount.
Food for intestinal dysbiosis should be eaten baked, stewed or boiled, steamed. Reception of too hot or too cold dishes is not recommended. Food should not be too plentiful. The number of meals - 5 times a day in small portions. At bedtime, drink a glass of kefir.
Approximate menu for diarrhea:
If the stool is liquid (elevated fermentation processes), then medical specialists recommend starving the first few days. Further, the diet for intestinal dysbiosis begins with limiting the amount of carbohydrates (from three to eight days).
It happens when such fermentation in the stomach can be putrid, that is, loose stools have a sharp, unpleasant odor. To do this, there is the following catering for dysbacteriosis.
- First breakfast: steam cutlets, rice porridge, tea.
- Second breakfast: homemade cottage cheese, a couple of crackers.
- Lunch: weak broth with or puree soup, cereal with meatballs.
- Safe, tea with breadcrumbs.
- Dinner: steamed omelette, mashed potatoes.
- Dream Interpretation: Kissel.
Approximate menu for the treatment of dysbiosis, accompanied by constipation:
- First breakfast on a diet: soft-boiled egg or boiled fish, buckwheat porridge and tea.
- The second breakfast: juice or apple.
- Lunch: potato soup and boiled meat with vegetables, compote.
- Lunch: salad of grated carrots, broth hips.
- Dinner: cottage cheese pudding, boiled vegetables, tea.
- Dream interpretation: kefir.
Useful and prohibited foods in the diet with dysbacteriosis
Low-fat beef, boiled, steam or baked chicken, jelly, boiled, steam, aspic fish (in a slice or in cutlets), soaked or chopped herring are suitable for the diet.
Soups are prepared in a weak meat, fish or chicken broth with the addition of cereals and vegetables.
Acidophilus, kefir, dietary cottage cheese, not sharp grated cheese are necessary from the dairy food on a diet with intestinal dysbacteriosis. It should be noted that bioproducts (biokefir, bio-yogurt, biorizhenka, yogurt) are especially recommended. Not less useful domestic soft and processed cheeses with the addition of bifidobacteria. To taste, these cheeses are almost the same as usual.
Vegetables on the diet are potatoes, beets, carrots (boiled or stewed), fresh tomatoes. Actual in this disease fruit and vegetable juices, baked apples. From the drinks are shown tea, coffee, cocoa on water with milk, compote.
Sugar, marmalade, butter are not excluded from the diet. Bakery products offered "yesterday's" white bread, dry biscuits.
Especially useful for intestines:
Cereal decoctions of the consistency of the mucous with the purpose of enveloping and removing fermentation products,
Baked apples to restore the balance of potassium in intestinal dysbiosis,
Rice puddings and mashed potatoes.
They will have the most favorable impact on the microflora. The merit of this pectin, which are contained in apple jelly and marmalade, phytocides (horseradish, bay leaf, garlic, pepper). The diet should be formulated so that it includes everything listed above. In addition, the use of lingonberries, cranberries and apricots is strongly recommended.
fatty meat, smoked meats, canned goods.
Soft white bread and muffins.
Mushrooms, garlic, spices.
Grape juice, melon.
Caution should be used cabbage cabbage, turnips, radishes, radishes, beans, green onions, sour cream.
Whatever drug therapy may seem, at first glance, effective, it is the right combination of probiotic medications, the right diet for intestinal dysbacteriosis are the most important activities. In addition, the correct observance of these conditions can give the most successful result.
All this does not mean that you need a strict diet, by no means. There is such a need only if there are abnormalities in the stool (dyspeptic syndrome), which can lead to complete dehydration of the body.
Nutrition rules for intestinal dysbacteriosis
Why not advise the use of dysbiosis. We will discuss options for how to do this correctly and with the highest percentage of efficiency.
So, intestinal dysbiosis can occur in both children and adults, and in many ways its appearance or absence depends on nutrition. If you decide to resort to diets for prevention, then you need to learn one thing - do not focus on eating time.
And one more important rule is the amount of food. To successfully deal with dysbiosis, eat when you want, and how much you want, because your body knows better what amount of nutrients it needs.
It is necessary to follow some recommendations for a better and quick recovery, namely:
The diet should contain low-fat, but high-calorie foods. And from the diet you need to exclude foods that cause fermentation and rot. The composition of such products include various smoked meats, pickles, spicy seasonings, you can not eat all carbonated drinks.
But for better recovery, you need to consume more dairy products. They include kefir, cottage cheese, yogurt, but you can yogurt.
But for a perfect recovery, you will need to take a course of vitamins to improve your health, it is necessary that the diet contains only healthy food.
During intestinal treatment, it will be necessary to exclude completely alcoholic beverages, all dough products and grape content.
But the very first thing that needs to be done to treat a disease is to consult a doctor so that he prescribes the right treatment. After all, the duration of the disease depends on this. On average, a full recovery takes almost two months. After all, not all herbs cure one disease, it is necessary to take into account the fact that each of the herbs contains other indications.
Video: Diet for intestinal dysbiosis
What can you eat with dysbacteriosis?
If dysbacteriosis is accompanied by constipation, then patients are recommended to include in the diet meals that contribute to the enhancement of the motor function of the colon. Unprocessed vegetables and fruits, dried fruits have a pronounced laxative effect (special attention should be paid to dried apricots and prunes). Do not ignore boiled and steamed vegetables, as well as lactic acid products.
If dysbiosis is accompanied by diarrhea, then the patient will benefit from products with a high content of tannin. Among these are: strong tea, cocoa without milk, blueberries, bird cherry, all dishes that have a viscous consistency.
So, when using dysbacteriosis, the following products and dishes are allowed:
Dysbacteriosis: causes, symptoms
What is dysbacteriosis? In our intestines there is a mass of various microorganisms. Their total weight can be 1-2 kilograms. These organisms can be divided into two groups. The first must live in the intestines and are necessary for normal digestion.
In addition, some bacteria are actively involved in strengthening the body's defenses and increase immunity. Others help to assimilate micro and macro elements, proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and much more.
Others inhibit the activity of pathogenic microorganisms and protect us from all kinds of infections. The second group of bacteria is related to pathogens.
They have a negative effect on digestion, which is why the absorption and processing of nutrients are impaired, the immunity is weakened, the work of some systems of the body deteriorates significantly.
Normally, the number of beneficial and harmful bacteria must be balanced. Such a balance allows the intestines and the body as a whole to work normally.
If there is an imbalance, that is, an increase in the number of pathogenic microorganisms, then we can talk about dysbacteriosis. This is not so much a disease as a condition caused by other problems.
We list some possible causes of the development of dysbiosis:
- Stress. It is no secret that stress is a serious load on the body, which can negatively affect the operation of individual systems, including the digestive system.
- Uncontrolled antibiotics.
- Acute intestinal infections can also provoke an imbalance of beneficial and harmful bacteria.
- Unbalanced nutrition. Today, this is a very urgent problem, because some are forced to eat almost on the go and extremely harmful products.
- Abuse of alcoholic beverages. Getting into the digestive tract, alcohol is extremely negative impact on the natural microflora, breaking it.
- Chronic diseases of the digestive system (gastritis, pancreatitis, and many others).
- Worm invasions. Naturally, parasites, entering the body, their activity violates the microflora, destroying the beneficial bacteria and releasing waste products.
Now it is worthwhile to dwell on the symptoms of dysbacteriosis:
- Abdominal discomfort.
- Boiling, rumbling in the stomach.
- Increased flatulence, bloating.
- Pain in the intestines, cramps.
- Stool disorders: constipation, diarrhea (or alternation), changes in stool consistency (mucus, undigested food) or its color.
- Other uncharacteristic manifestations associated with impaired functioning of the immune system and with a lack of nutrients will also develop gradually: drowsiness, weakness, increased fatigue, chronic fatigue, and frequent colds.
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Treatment of dysbacteriosis should be selected individually and depends on the nature of the condition and the degree of disturbance of the microflora. In addition, specific manifestations are taken into account. Here are some possible actions:
- If the imbalance is caused by an increased number of pathogenic microorganisms, then they certainly need to be eliminated by taking antibiotics. But only a doctor can prescribe such drugs.
- To increase the number of beneficial bacteria, prebiotics and probiotics are prescribed, as well as other products containing lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. Used drugs such as "Linex", "Bifidumbakterin" and others.
To normalize the function of digestion can be assigned to the means-enzymes: "Creon", "Mezim", "Pancreatin".
- For diarrhea, medications that reduce intestinal peristalsis are used.
- If there are places to be constipated, then you need to eliminate them. Lactulose-based products are used (Normaze, Duphalac), as well as others containing natural plant components.
- It is extremely important to normalize nutrition. But more about that separately.
Any means can appoint only a doctor! Self-medication is ineffective and can aggravate the situation.
What is possible and what is not?
Lists of allowed and prohibited products should be compiled by a doctor, certainly taking into account the peculiarities of the state.
Usually banned are the following products:
- Sweet. Sugar is a great breeding ground for bacteria, so pathogens will feel more than comfortable. Reduce the amount of sweets to a minimum, drink unsweetened tea, forget about sweet drinks.
- Yeast also contributes to the proliferation of bacteria, so yeast baking is better to refuse. For the same reason, it is desirable to forget about kvass. White bread is also not needed.
- Alcohol, too, give up. Moreover, it is better to drink a glass of brandy during a feast than a glass of wine or a beer mug. All fermentation beverages will cause deterioration. And it is better not to drink at all.
- About heavy food, too, should be forgotten, it impairs digestion and is difficult to digest. So no fat, fried.
- Remove from the refrigerator semi-finished products, fast food and other "nastiness".
- Anything that may irritate the mucous membranes of the digestive organs, should also be excluded from the diet. This number includes: spicy, pickles, salted, smoked, sour (including sour fruits and berries), and so on.
- Do not use foods that usually provoke fermentation, for example, sauerkraut, grapes.
Here's what to eat:
Black bread (better than rough grinding), cereal.
General principles of nutrition
Adjust your diet in such a way as to maximize your digestion. Here are the basic principles:
- Eat better fractional. It is better to eat more often (4-5 times a day), but gradually. The volume of one serving should not exceed 250 grams. Overeating is a huge load on the digestive tract.
- Try to eat at the same time.
- The interval between meals should not exceed 4 hours.
- Do not snack on the go and quickly. Chew all food thoroughly.
- Do not drink before, during or after meals. It will slow down and make it difficult to digest food. You can drink a glass of water half an hour before the meal or an hour or two after it.
- Food should be at room temperature. Hot or cold food is longer and more difficult to process.
- With significant digestive disorders, it is better to grind all foods. This will relieve the digestive tract. As you improve, you can return to the usual mode.
Separate world in the intestines
Ученые подсчитали, что в кишечнике содержится до 50 триллионов микробов. Это значительно больше, чем количество клеток во взрослом человеческом организме. Они участвуют в формировании каловых масс и составляют до 60% конечного «продукта».
The species composition of bacteria is diverse, but the main 99% are only 30-40 species of microbes. The remaining percentage includes up to 400 species of microorganisms. The composition of the normal flora includes:
In the contents of the stomach microbes practically do not occur. The acidic environment does not allow them to survive. The exceptions are lactobacilli, streptococci, sarcins. Sterility is maintained in the initial section of the small intestine. Microbes are not able to survive there due to the aggressive action of enzymes of digestion. A large number of bacteria are already present in the final compartment.
The large intestine is the realm of germs. The number of microorganisms in it is much higher. The greatest contamination is observed in the rectum.
There are mechanisms that do not allow microbes to overgrow:
- in the stomach - hydrochloric acid,
- in the small intestine - normal motility,
- in the colon - ileocecal valve between the cecum and small intestine.
Normal flora are bifidobacteria, lactobacilli and bacteroids. They fill the intestinal walls, their metabolic products do not allow pathogenic microbes to multiply. The functions of microflora are as follows:
- synthesis of vitamins K and group B,
- participation in the synthesis of essential amino acids,
- stimulation of peristalsis,
- folic acid absorption
- calcium exchange,
- water-salt metabolism
- formation of immunity
- metabolism of bilirubin and bile acids.
Why is the balance changing ...
The state of the intestinal flora depends on the nature of the food. The peculiarity of the human body is that the diet should contain various types of nutrients in certain proportions. Excesses in the direction of protein, fat or carbohydrates affect the state of the flora and overall health. But to dysbacteriosis usually bring several factors.
- The nature of power. The predominance of a certain type of substances leads to the development of different types of flora. A large amount of protein threatens with increased growth of clostridia, sweets and simple carbohydrates create an environment for candida, Escherichia coli and peptostreptokokk, and a fatty diet promotes reproduction of bacteroids.
- Antibiotic therapy. Antibacterial drugs act indiscriminately. Often, their mechanism of action is based on damage to the cell wall, impaired growth and reproduction of microbes. For the intestinal flora, this does not pass without a trace; after antibiotics, the most resistant microbes remain in the intestine.
- Pathology of the digestive tract. Stomatitis, gastritis, duodenitis, colitis, enteritis are inflammatory diseases. In the area of inflammation, the blood flow is disturbed, digestion is deteriorating, the substances are absorbed, and immune defense cells are actively working. Conditions for the survival of bacteria inappropriate.
- Acute infections. Diarrhea, which is a consequence of salmonellosis, dysentery, enterovirus affects the state of its own flora, and pathogenic microorganisms do not allow normal development.
- Pathology of immunity. This concept includes allergic diseases and immunosuppression of various kinds. Allergy is not only a rash on the skin, such a reaction is only a small manifestation of the processes that take place in the body. For intestines, allergies are tissue edema, a cellular reaction that upsets the balance of the flora.
- Fermentopathy. Celiac disease, lactase deficiency associated with impaired digestion of certain substances, the result of the metabolism of which serves as a breeding ground for microflora.
Helminthiasis, prolonged stress, treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can affect the state of the flora. Diabetes, pregnancy also can upset the balance.
... and how it manifests itself
Symptoms of changes in the composition of the flora are not specific, they can be signs of various diseases. But the lack of effect of treatment should suggest that dysbacteriosis is to blame.
- Disorders of the chair. These are not only frequent diarrheas, but also unformed stools several times a day, which do not fall under the definition of diarrhea. Sometimes there is an alternation of periods of liquefied stools and constipation, as well as frequent bloating.
- Allergy. It may have the nature of food intolerance, which depends on the amount of food eaten. At the same time, skin reactions appear in the form of rash and itching, diarrhea and flatulence increase.
- Malabsorption syndrome. This is a violation of the absorption of certain substances in the intestine. It is manifested by the symptoms of hypovitaminosis of certain groups of vitamins, protein deficiency, anemia.
- The deterioration of the general condition. Weakness, susceptibility to colds, decreased performance and depressed mood are the result of the above processes.
Diet for dysbacteriosis: principles of building a menu
If the diagnosis has confirmed the imbalance of microflora, it is time to switch to a therapeutic diet for dysbacteriosis. It must comply with the following rules.
- Balance . It is necessary to properly combine proteins, fats and carbohydrates, their quantity should correspond to the physiological norm.
- Liquid. For the formation of fecal masses and the life of microbes need water. With constipation, its deficiency will increase the unpleasant symptoms, and with diarrhea, fluid is necessary to compensate for the loss. Optimally per day to use 1.5-2 liters of water. An adult can be recommended to take a glass of pure water or gas without minerals 30 minutes before meals.
- Mode. Any pathology of the digestive tract requires a clear distinction between meals. Meals for dysbacteriosis should occur on the clock, with the division of meals for breakfast, lunch and dinner, as well as small receptions between them (second breakfast and afternoon tea).
Diet for acute dysbacteriosis depends on the nature of dyspeptic symptoms. The type of impairment is determined by the analysis and appearance of the chair. The table of products will help to orient in these indicators.